Section 2 discusses the history and development of the Cadastral Data Content Standard, and includes a description of the Standard.
On October 19, 1990, the Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-16 called for "...facilitation of exchange of information and transfer of data; the establishment and implementation of STANDARDS for quality, content, and transferability; and the coordination of the collection of spatial data to minimize duplication of effort where practicable and economical."
Circular A-16 also specified the following purposes and intents:
"A major objective of this Circular is the eventual development of a national digital spatial information resource, with the involvement of Federal, State, and local governments, and the private sector."
"...enable sharing and efficient transfer of spatial data between producers and users."
"...build information partnerships among government institutions and the public and private sectors... "
"...avoiding wasteful duplication of effort and ensuring effective and economical management of information resources..."
"...each coordinating Department will arrange...for exchange of information...concerning technological developments."
"An interagency coordinating committee will be established ...called the Federal Geographic Data Committee..." (FGDC) "The objective of this interagency coordinating committee is to promote the coordinated development, use, sharing, and dissemination of surveying, mapping, and related spatial data."
"...the development and implementation of standards, exchange formats, specifications, procedures, and guidelines;"
On April 13, 1994, Executive Order 12906, mandated the following:
"The FGDC shall develop standards for implementing the NSDI, in consultation and cooperation with State, local, and tribal governments, the private and academic sectors, and, to the extent feasible, the international community..."
"...standards shall be submitted to the Department of Commerce for consideration as Federal Information Processing Standards."
"Federal agencies collecting or producing geospatial data,
either directly or indirectly (e.g. through grants, partnerships, or contracts
with other entities), shall ensure, prior to obligating funds for such
activities, that data will be collected in a manner that meets all relevant
standards adopted through the FGDC process."
The TAG met ten times from September 1993 to September 1994, held several open meetings and forums, and also met in sub-groups to address specific issues.
In March 1994, Version 1 of the Cadastral Data Content Standard was released for comment and review. Comments were then summarized, discussed, and answered.
A new version of the Standard was submitted to the FGDC in September of 1994. This version was released for public comment in a review period from January 1995 - May 31, 1995. Comments from this period were reviewed and incorporated into the Standard.
The Cadastral Data Content Standard was approved in 1996.
The TAG reviewed OMB Circular A-16, the Vice President's national performance review goals and requirements, the need for improved customer service by the Federal Government, goals of the FGDC, and requirements for full participation in National Spatial Data Inventory (NSDI) according to Executive Order 12906. All this was used to form the scope, mission, and goals for development of the Standard, thus arriving at the following requirements:
Work Plan. A Work Plan was developed from the results of the initial study. The initial study determined four standards were needed: Content Standard, Collection Standard, Clearinghouse Metadata Profile, and Transfer Standard. The Content Standard is approved and published. It was decided the Collection Standard and Transfer Standard will not be created. The Clearinghouse Metadata Profile for cadastral data is waiting on FGDC definition. For further information on the progress of these and other standards, refer to the Status of FGDC Standards.
Meeting Structure and Organization. Each team member assembled data, definitions, codes and other information from their respective agency. The TAG meetings brought this information together to form an optimum solution. The team summarized notes, revised data models and processes, and modified definitions.
Review Sessions. Draft versions of the Standard were circulated among Federal Agencies and interested parties outside the Federal government. Articles were published in land professional and GIS association newsletters describing the Standard and asking for input. Open forums were held at national and regional conferences. Seminars and discussions included representatives from county government, data conversion businesses, state agencies, and local agencies. Results of these review sessions were incorporated in the Standard.
Standards Components. The TAG identified the four components of the Standards to be developed, as mentioned above: Content Standard, Collection Standard (not implemented), Clearinghouse Metadata Profile, and Transfer Standard (not implemented).
Existing Standards. The TAG integrated the Cadastral Data Content Standard with other existing standards as much as possible. Standards reviewed included: Federal Information Processing Standards Publications; the FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata; USGS and BLM Public Land Survey System meridian definitions; and other local and state government standards.
Integration with Federal Geographic Data Committee
Subcommittees. The TAG identified entities such as geopolitical boundaries,
addresses, agency names, and private organizations which may overlap entities
defined by other FGDC Subcommittees when those Subcommittees define their
entities and attributes.
1. Presentation use of cadastral data is for displaying information.
2. Analysis. This level of use is for GIS analysis.
3. Transaction. The transaction level of use of cadastral data pertains to property transactions.
To investigate these concepts in more detail, and look
at examples, see Section 3.
The Standard is a repository. It does not limit or filter the information that can be included. Information is included as it appears in the public record.
The Standard contains rules for relationships between entities and attributes.
The Standard remains open to change, and is intended to meet the needs of all levels of organizations and uses.
Further information and discussion on topics such as elements,
entities, and attributes can be found in the Section
Four under Understanding the Diagram Conventions.
Bruce, T.A., Designing Quality Databases with IDEF1X Information Models, Dorset House, 1992.
Chen, P.P.S., "The Entity-Relationship Model -- toward a unified view of data". ACM Transactions on Database Systems 1, 1, March 1976.
Jackson, Michael A., System Development. Prentice Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1983.
Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 184, the Standard for Integration Definition for Information Modeling, U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, December 1993.
One of the best short summaries of Bachman and Chen data modeling methods which we have found is in McDonnell Douglas' ProKit WORKBENCH Application Manual, Chapter 8, Data Modeler. This is a proprietary software documentation manual, so as far as we know it is not a book available for purchase. Contact McDonnell Douglas (1-800-225-7760) if you are interested. (Note: In April 2002 it was pointed out to us that this document is no longer easily available from McDonnell Douglas, and thus may be difficult to find.)
Surprisingly, there is virtually no widely accessible published information on the Charles Bachman method of data modeling. A search on the subject of Bachman data modeling brought up the following articles:
This ends Course Section 2. Use the links below to return to the top of this page, or to go on to Section 3, or any of the other Sections or Modules.
Links to the Course Sections and Modules: [Quick
1: Purpose and Benefits of the Cadastral Data Content Standard] [Section
2: How the Standard Was Developed] [Section
3: Other Standards and Related Activities] [Section
4: Data Modeling Techniques, Rules and Diagram Conventions] [Section
5: Crosswalks, Translations, and Examples] [Section
6: Understanding Compliance with the Standard] [Section
7: Maintenance of the Standard] [Section
8: User and Technical Support] [County
Recorder Module] [GIS
Specialist Module] [Surveyor
Learning the Cadastral Data Content Standard
Presented by the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, and
the Federal Geographic Data Committee Cadastral Subcommittee